Structural Racism Sociology Essay

Systemic racism refers to an ingrained culture of racisms afflicts a particular society over a long period of time. Such discriminatory practices afflict both the white and black members of community. In most case, however, the black sections of a society face the worst racist practice. This can possibly by marginally higher populations of white persons compared to white individuals. This assertion is proved because on localized regions where white person are discriminated against because of being the minority group. Racism usually involves prejudges and disintegration of the members of the community. Manifestations of racism can be traced to attitudes view points cultivated form childhood. Therefore eradicating systemic racism proves extremely difficult.
The American has experienced a long-running culture of systemic racism. The roots of racism can be understood by reviews the history of migrations into and out of the country. They prominence and source of slave trade resulted in an increase in number of black persons with the US. White person served as the masters of black slaves obtained through human trafficking from African countries. Therefore, the master-slave relationship between whites and blacks led to an inflated sense of superiority on the past of the white. Black people were perceived as inferior to human beings. Plenty of harsh treatment was accorded to black persons crumbling under the yoke of white people.
During the mid-1950, racial inequality was interview into the fabric of American society and culture. In the decade of 1965-1964. Americans grappled with racial inequality. The widespread nature of racial segregation impacted almost all areas with the country. The threat posed by racism was reflected in daily activities. For instance, modes of transportation were segregated so as to cater for black and white persons. Specific sidewalks and restaurants became predominantly either black or white. Institutional racism was also developed in hiring firms and other companies. Blacks become synonymous with certain job description, especially those offered by construction companies. While the blacks grappled with blue-collar jobs, white person reveled in white-collar opportunities. In some instance, blacks were denied medical services in certain institutions. The white received preferential treatment in several establishments within the American society.
The growing number of black persons within the US posed a threat to the superiority and dominance of the community. Consequently, all types segregation measures were adopted so as to suppress the growth and morale of black communities. Element of master-slave relationships still existed within the society. The extent of racism inequality became extreme when blacks began suffering injustices from institutions enacted to support all citizens within the country.

Institutional Racism Essay

In The Color of Fear, Victor said, "Most of the lethal, deadly, toxic racism that people of color experience...comes from moral, fair-minded people who are lovers of justice--mostly decent and very nice folks." Many racist ideas and practices are more obvious than others. Several authors of our readings have discussed the "unintentional" or "unconscious" forms of racism. It is this type of "invisible" racism that Victor is talking about and can often be more difficult to address and change than overt, blatant racism. These forms of racism are more insidious and work behind the scenes and enable racism to exist even in the absence of deliberate racist attitudes and actions.

Racism is a system of oppression based on race that creates advantages and disadvantages among groups of people. Racism includes the beliefs, practices, laws, customs, and social arrangements that systematically burden, disadvantage, devalue or render inferior members of one racial group in relation to another in a society. Racism is based on the belief on innate superiority of one race over another given to us courtesy of essentialism. The beliefs, attitudes, and actions of individuals, cultural norms, and the systematic institutional structures and practices of society support racism and continue its operation in U.S. society.

There are different levels, dimensions, forms and manifestations of racism. Healy disusses the different levels and dimensions. He identifies two levels-individual and institutional and two dimensions- thinking/feeling and doing/acting. One of the categories discussed is institutional discrimination. Healy classifies institutional racism on the institutional level and in the doing/acting dimension. Healy defines institutional discrimination as, "a pattern of unequal treatment based on group membership that is built into the daily operations of society." Instutional racism consists of the laws, customs and practices that systematically produce advantages and disadvantages in society. Institutional racism enables racism to exist regardless of whether or not the individuals maintaining the laws, customs, and practices have racist intentions. Individuals may not be consciously racist and may be the moral, fair-minded, nice folks that Victor refers to, yet participate in racist practices.

One example of institutional racism can be seen when looking at real estate and demographics. Institutional racism can often be invisible. Many racist practices happen behind the scenes and are left embedded in our institutions from historical practices. Karen Brodkin Sacks discusses racist procedures of the FHA in her article How Jews Became White. Although the system of redlining and repeated denying of home loans to blacks are not as transparent as in the past, racial segregation continues to exist. Many neighborhoods in our society are still segregrated....

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