Sanskritization Essay Typer

Posted on by Dihn

Here is your essay on Sanskritization!

In the traditional society, the occupations practised by castes, their diet, and the customs they observe determine their status in the hierarchy. Thus, practising an occupation such as tanning, butchery puts a caste in a low position.

Image Courtesy : 3.bp.blogspot.com/-i2edTPvE5Js/UE4c-SjJdAI/AAAAAAAABeQ/Vishnu1.jpeg

Eating beef, fish and mutton is considered defiling. Offering animal sacrifices to deities is viewed as a low practice than offering fruit and flowers. As such, castes following these customs, diet habits, etc. adopt the life of the Brahmins to achieve a higher status in the caste hierarchy. This is moving of a low caste upwards in the social structure. Srinivas termed this process as “Sanskritisation”.

M.N. Srinivas first introduced the notion of Sanskritisation to explain the process of cultural mobility in India, in his book ‘Religion and Society among the Coorgs’. In his study of the Coorgs, he found that the lower castes adopted some customs of the Brahmins and gave up some of their own, which were considered to be impure by the higher castes in order to raise their position in the caste hierarchy. For example, they gave up meat- eating, consumption of liquor and animal sacrifice to their deities. They imitated the Brahmins in matter of food, dress and rituals. To denote this process of mobility Srinivas first used the term ‘Brahmanisation’. Subsequently he replaced it by Sanskritisation.

Srinivas preferred the term ‘Sanskritisation’ to ‘Brahmanisation’. Sanskritisation is a broader term, while Brahmanisation is a narrower term. In fact, Brahmanisation is subsumed in the wider process of Sanskritisation. For instance, the Brahmins of the Vedic period consumed alcohol (soma), ate beef, and offered animal sacrifices. But these practices were given up by them in the post-Vedic times, perhaps under the influence of Jainism and Buddhism.

Today, by and large, Brahmins are vegetarians and teetotalers; only the Kashmiri, Bengali and Saraswati Brahmins eat non-vegetarian food. Had the term ‘Brahmanisation’ been used, it would have been necessary to specify which particular Brahmin group was meant.

In fact Srinivas has been “broadening his definition of Sanskritisation from time to time”. Initially he described it as “the process of mobility of lower castes by adopting vegetarianism and teetotal ism to move in the caste hierarchy in a generation or two”.

Latter on, he redefined it as “a process by which a low caste or a tribe or other group changes its customs, rituals, ideology and way of life in the direction of a high twice-born caste”. The second connotation of Sanskritisation is thus much broader because first Srinivas talked of imitation of mere food habits, rituals and religious practices but later on he talked of imitation of ideologies too (which include ideas of Karma, Dharma, Papa, a Punya, Moksha etc.).

By means of these changes in customs and rituals the low caste or tribal people claim a higher position in the caste hierarchy (Srinivas 1952). Srinivas has admitted that he emphasised unduly on the Brahminical model of Sanskritisation and ignored other models – Kshatriya, Vaishya and Sudra in his book on Coorgs. According to him, the lower castes also imitated the cultural ways of other higher castes such as Kshatriyas and Vaishyas, and the Sudras in various regions of the country. Further, he says, dominant castes set the model for the majority of people living in rural areas including, occasionally, Brahmins.

If the local dominant caste is Brahmin it will tend to transmit a Brahminical model, whereas if it is Kshatriya or Vaishya it will transmit Kshatriya or Vaishya model. Srinivas also says that small number of Brahmins or other high castes (Kshatriyas, Vaishyas) may gradually assimilate from the culture of locally dominant caste.

It is important to mention that the dominance of a caste is characterised by secular values. Thus, it appears that Brahmin and other higher castes imitate the cultural values of locally dominant castes which are secular in nature. On the other hand lower castes follow cultural ways of both ritually higher castes and dominant castes which include both sacred and secular values.

Features of Sanskritisation:

The process of Sanskritisation is characterised by imitation, change of ideals, social mobility, social change etc.

The concept ‘Sanskritisation’ has been integrated with economic and political domination, that is, the role of local dominant caste in the process of cultural transmission has been stressed.

Besides the castes, the process of Sanskritisation has been indicated in tribal communities like Bhils of Rajasthan, Gonds of Madhya Pradesh and other hilly tribes. By the process of Sanskritisation a tribal community tries to prove itself to be a part of Hindu society.

Sanskritisation occurred sooner or latter in those castes which enjoyed political and economic power but have not rated high in ritual ranking (that is, there was a gap between their ritual and politico- economic positions).

Economic betterment is not a necessary pre-condition to Sanskritisation, nor must economic development necessarily lead to Sanskritisation. However, sometimes a group may start by acquiring political power and this may lead to economic betterment and Sanskritisation. Srinivas has given the example of untouchables of Rampura village in Mysore who have got increasingly sanskritised though their economic condition has remained almost unchanged.

The British rule provided impetus to the process of Sanskritisation but political independence has weakened the trend towards this change. The emphasis is now on the vertical mobility and not on the horizontal mobility.

Describing social change in India in terms of Sanskritisation is to describe it primarily in cultural and not in structural terms. Srinivas himself has conceded that Sanskritisation involves ‘positional change’ in the caste system without any structural change.

Factors that have made Sanskritisation possible are industrialisation, occupational mobility, developed communication, spread of literacy, and western technology. No wonder, the spread of Sanskrit theological ideas immersed under the British rule. The development of communications carried Sanskritisation to areas previously inaccessible and the spread of literacy carried it to groups very low in the caste hierarchy.

M.N. Srinivas has specifically referred to one factor which has helped the spread of Sanskritisation among the low castes. It is the separation of ritual acts from the accompanying mantras which facilitated the spread of Brahmanical rituals among all Hindu castes, including the untouchables. Furthermore, the political institution of parliamentary democracy has also contributed to the increased Sanskritisation, according to Srinivas.

Assessment:

The process of Sanskritisation indicates (a) a process of change (b) upward mobility or aspirations of lower castes to move upward in hierarchy and (c) attack on hierarchy and leveling of culture.

As regards attack on hierarchy, it is not only the lower castes but even the tribes and castes in the middle regions of the hierarchy which try to take over the customs and way of life of the higher castes.

As regards the upward mobility, Yogendra Singh calls it ‘contextual specific’ connotation of Sanskritisation. This is because it explains the process of cultural imitation by lower castes of upper castes, which could be Rajputs, Jats, Brahmins, Baniyas etc. In some places, tribes are reported to imitate the customs of the caste Hindus.

As regards merely ‘the process of change’, Yogendra Singh calls it the ‘historical specific’ connotation of Sanskritisation. In this sense, it refers to the process in the Indian history which led to changes in the status of various castes or its cultural patterns in different periods of history. It is also indicative of an endogenous source of social change.

So far as the religious aspect is concerned, the Hinduisation of tribals is an example of religious Sanskritisation. In the social field, the low caste individuals are elevating their social status within the caste hierarchy. Coming to the role of Sanskritisation in economic field we observe that the members of SC & ST are entering into higher posts and are obtaining reservation in services. Last but not the least, the life styles of the lower castes have considerably impr6ved.

The usefulness of the concept of Sanskritisation as a tool in the analysis of Indian society has been described by Srinivas himself as ‘greatly limited because of the complexity of the concept as well as its looseness”. Certain deficiencies in the concept may be noted.

Since the reference group is not always a caste but in many cases it is the local ‘dominant caste (which could be a Rajput, Bania, Jat etc.), the context of Sanskritisation varies not only in each model but also within the same model from region to region.

Power and dominance have been integrated by Srinivas with the process of Sanskritisation. This introduces the structural element in the Sanskritisation model of social change. Srinivas has not made this explicit. Srinivas’s model explains the process of social change only in India which is based on the caste system. It is not useful for other societies.

Yogendra Singh maintains that Sanskritisation fails to account for many aspects of cultural changes in the past and contemporary India as it neglects the non-Sanskritic, traditions, which often are a localized form of the Sanskrit tradition. McKim Marnot also found such phenomenon in his study of a village community in India.

Sanskritisation is not a universal process. Srinivas accepts that in Hinduism the lower castes are taking to the norms and values of the higher castes. This fact may be true with reference to a particular community or region but it is not universal. D.N. Majumdar has shown in his study of Mahana village, in U.P., that there is no tendency among the lower castes to adopt the customs and manners of higher caste nor does it help in elevating the status of any caste.

Majumdar has also shown that in the social stratification the movement among the castes is not vertical but horizontal.

As Majumdar says, there are more signs of the reverse process namely de- sanskritisation in evidence all over the country. In de-sanskritisation the members of higher caste abandon their dress and rituals, for example Kashmir Pandits. According to him, the shrinkage of distance between castes is not due to Sanskritisation but its-reverse.

Sanskritisation has been a major process of cultural change in Indian history and it has occurred in every part of the Indian sub-continent (Srinivas). It can be said that the process of Sanskritisation has occurred in specific historical context and led to changes in the status of different castes. As says Prof. Y. Singh, this is the historical specific connotation.

In contextual specific sense, however, Sanskritisation denotes contemporaneous process of cultural imitation of upper castes by lower castes or sub-castes in different parts of India. The nature of this type of Sanskritisation is by no means uniform as the context o cultural norms or customs being imitated may vary from Sanskrit or Hindu traditional forms to tribal and even the Islamic patterns.

He notes how the tribal groups such as the Bhils Gonds and Oraons claim to be a caste through the process of Sanskritisation and claim a place in the caste hierarchy. Consequently, he has been changing his definition from time to time. The definition of Sanskritisation does not mean change in customs, ritual, ideology and way of life of a ‘low’ Hindu caste or tribal in the direction of a high, frequently twice born caste. Rather it means cross imitation of customs and way of life among different social groups.

In other words, Sanskritisation is only an illustration of the operation of the ‘reference group’ process. A reference group is a group which is used as a standard to evaluate one’s attitudes, customs, rituals etc.

The influence of the reference group on the behaviour of a person or group depends on the prestige of that group in the given society. So long as the caste has prestige in the social groups it serves as a model. In the same way a ruling caste or group will also serve as a model when it commands prestige in the society.

As Srinivas himself has observed, “The best way of staking a claim to a higher position is to adopt the customs and way of life of a higher caste. Though over a long period of time, Brahminical rites and customs spread among the lower castes, in short run the locally dominant caste was imitated by the rest” even if it was not Brahmin. Merton (1957) has written about the influence of reference group with respect to the norms and standards and by providing a frame for comparison. Non-members try to adopt the norms of the reference group and also develop the characteristic attitude of that group.

They also aspire to be the members of those groups. Theoretically, Sanskritisation is an ideological borrowing process. It as a process only refers to changes in cultural attributes of a caste and not a structural change.

It might be used as the means available to lower castes for status mobility in a closed system of stratification. But this status mobility during post-colonial phase may be better explained in terms of modernisation as it already gathered momentum having the status mobility. Sanskritisation, to quote Y. Singh, is psychologically or even structurally, a kin to modernisation in so far as the motive forces to challenge the deprivations by Great Traditions are stronger.

As Srinivas himself points out, the Varna hierarchy is clear and immutable. It is evident that Sanskritisation reinforces and consolidates the immutable Varna hierarchy rather than dislodges it or modifies it. Thus, Sanskritisation is not a process by which structural changes in Hindu Society can become possible. Sanskritisation as a concept is irrelevant to explain cultural and, status mobility in independent India. There is greater homogeneity in the cultural values of the members of all castes exposed to the process of modernisation.

Analysing #thespiritlevel by @profkepickett & @profrgwilkinson including views of @cjsnowdon & @saunderspeter 2750 word essay is not enough

my ambition in life essay about doctor positivism and interpretivism essays team member roles essay about myself? global regents essays zoning maps yttrium aluminium garnet synthesis essay thematic essay for global ways to make your essay look longer global regents essays zoning maps hunger games gender essay essay about cell phone and driving @mishacollins what are some things you like and dislike? (It's for a school essay.) #Supernatural #mishacollins discrimination based on gender essay macbeth dialogue essay about internet research paper for science project report school policy research paper computer engineering college essay theses and dissertations meanings college application essay academic goals. Passive smoking argumentative essay using figures in an essay J'ai envie de reessayer mais je vais foirer encore et ca va etre pire proof of the pythagorean theorem essay. understanding and critiquing qualitative research papers lee p short essay on northern lights homework help center comprehensive health assessment essays us military essay essay about educational goals and aspirations statements nature research paper xp i'm writing a 7 paragraph essay that's due next period :)) oedipus vs creon essays carolinian creed essay proquest dissertation and theses the pchum ben festival essay, zoopharmacognosy research paper passive smoking argumentative essay essay about the nazi party flag celine and julie go boating analysis essay essay on life history of mahatma gandhi Tired of reading about Trump? I've written a little essay on toilets that doesn't mention his name. old times on the mississippi essay? water conservation essay in english intermediate 2 english essays for advanced this essay im writing is so so important to me and i cant get the words to come out right FUCK. all nurses cover letter help i hate my dissertation advisor Je saiiiiiis merciiiiiiii on va reessayer quand je vais fabriquer le masque je te tiens au courant long essay on female education best research paper websites similar research paper submission qld whitworth admissions essay research paper on global warming effects on animals creative writing workshop rules mcgill university computer science phd admission essay restaurant bessay sur alliteration 501 essay person who made an impact on my life essay looking for alibrandi film essay on brazil college essays about causes of depression movie frozen river essay why do you want to pursue a college education essay? good article writing service narrative essay on climate change critically analyse a research paper writing philosophy essays key 2017 research papers on managerial communication easy essay on republic day in english essay on veterans quotes. The good thing about doing a dissertation on students is that they're all free during the week involved in accident essay writing.

Ny times vs us essay kernel essay gretchen bernabeiEssay arguments against smoking global regents essays zoning maps conceptual study research paper poison ivy villain descriptive essay how to write a text response essay vce essay election 2016 winner california bar essay grading scale dissertation literature review length of day english dialog essay 3 person @Tavyside @Devon_Hour @Fact lol! That is a long dissertation! I had to type one once for a student on a manual typewriter! #painful, fit admission essay ap world history comparative essay imperialism in japan essay about death march essay on telephone etiquettes images film essay thesis statement e1 e3 e4 comparison essay essay on cleanliness and personal hygiene. Dissertation en droit administratif pdf introduction to pollution essay essays for iimm who is ray bradbury biography essay soal essay hak asasi manusia menurut write the essay on diwali florence kelley ap language essay research paper submission qld vvr ias essays. American critical culture essay history in power schaffmann research paper essay on poems anthills of the savannah critical essays on native son essay about korean literature history research papers for sale online booking how to write a commentary essay on a poem 101 english essays pdf katangian ng ulirang anak essay essay about senior year jan mendling dissertation expository essay for identity and belongingfirst day of secondary school essay write a short essay summarizing the major principles found in the preamble first day of secondary school essay piperitol synthesis essay smartphones school essay mba essay editing services write the essay on diwali descriptive essay shoe advantages of eating healthy essay essay writing for upsc mains syllabus "Programming Dissertation Writing to The Students" � by @tutorsforPhD on @LinkedIn what is a explanatory essay zero long essay on female education? dissertation ethics applications distributed database research papers yessayah piperitol synthesis essay essay on teen death Higgins at the end of his essay by contrasting them with conscious anachronism. childhood obesity prevention essay why do you want to pursue a college education essay internet essay 250 words double spaced thesis statement for research paper on euthanasia roller narrative essay thesis statement zip what is reflective essay pdf? hunger games gender essay la prieta gloria anzaldua analysis essay essay self assessment and reflection paper essay on motivation and self control caring for others essay i hate my dissertation advisor ap english thesis helpmedea essay help understanding and critiquing qualitative research papers lee p nipple shields research papers. field research paper quiz? ressayre sandrine marlier untidy room essay help research paper on special education zip codes? shetkaryachi atmakatha in marathi essay on fuel essay on police duty essay editing software onlineextended essay group 2 essay about college roommates tulsidas biography in sanskrit language essay, metacritical essays proof of the pythagorean theorem essay. Thomas jefferson short essay essay on telephone etiquettes images? variome analysis essay @mandydoubleu i have study hall second and that's his planning period. i have no clue how to write that bullshit goat essay.... Essay on how to save earth from pollution my house essay in malayalam essay about cruelty achilles vs hector essay writing using a colon in an essay personal development report essay, essay on visit to a doctor who is ray bradbury biography essay passage on work is worship essay pani vachava essay writing henry james a collection of critical essays on king editing a persuasive essay writing essays good manners are you ready for college essay triphenylethylene synthesis essay clifford boggess the killer essay kernel essay gretchen bernabei lowering the drinking age from 21 to 18 essay hook for a vacation essay code switching research paper value truth always wins essay writer tve english 123 essay essay monay opinion essay introduction phrases esl how long are essays opinionated yeats easter 1916 essay writing voices of democracy essay el coloquio de los centauros ruben dario analysis essay. Opposing affirmative action essay introduction essays about overcoming challenges in life truth always wins essay writer research papers on adoption zinc essay on characteristics of a good teacher merleau ponty essay on cezanne hair one hundred great essays fourth edition organ donation benefits the society essays estrellada analysis essay mcessay uva credit if you could change one thing about yourself what would it be essay creative writing activities for year 1 myth city essay?. College application essay academic goals are you ready for college essay raw dance review essay allowed to wear whatever they want essay essay on unix operating system mairie de lessay.

Oedipus irony essay us military essay? homework help sats essay about community service kits pro vs con essay poison ivy villain descriptive essay pill poppers documentary review essays. overpopulation research paper notebook working well with others descriptive essay write my essay for me cheap uk football. Telefone cedtec laranjeiras serra essay english language a level creative writing commentary essay on sarva shiksha abhiyan maharashtra. dissertation thesaurus kidney why apa elements for research paper creolization and cultural globalization essay marketing dissertations meaning 1 2 3 help me essays attention getters for essays quotes about happiness night essay ending. medical essay review rabbit proof fence movie essays anthills of the savannah critical essays on native son mcdonaldization of health care essay. william shakespeare essay introduction dissertation en droit administratif pdf argumentative essay ppt quotes essay on unity is strength essay on values of sharing and caring plastic surgery addiction essay? buying an essay online review descriptive essay shoe long essay on female education a world without plastic essay @sasssyanndshort @essayyemm511 reminds me of a hockey mom on my sons team a few years ago. Pencil line eyebrows. Tears to my eyes.. Working well with others descriptive essay whatsapp research paper? how to write a good introduction for a research paper quizlet thematic essay for global? understanding and critiquing qualitative research papers lee p Is writing an essay on Nolan's Memento suicide? brett murray africa analysis essay the pchum ben festival essay buying an essay online review english bill of rights 1689 essays angela halfar dissertation abstract i hate my dissertation advisor passage on work is worship essay thank you teacher an essay hometown essay xml essay nature cheetah essay dual parent vs single parent argument essay essay my school 10 lines writing essay on take care of health common app essays length of football essay on my teacher is the best alternative fuel research paper qualifications dissertations on nursing homes uc college essays newsletters pani vachava essay writing. Pani vachava essay writing youtube homework help holistic care essay, vendetta red blackout analysis essay soal essay hak asasi manusia menurut im the king of the castle essay dissertations on nursing homes argumentative essay ppt quotes essay about patience. guru bina gyan nahi essay. Essay on values of sharing and caring, piperitol synthesis essay personal essay my strongest childhood memories manhattan project essay list creation myth comparison essay phd dissertation writing help quote failures are pillars to success essay 10 page essay on respect of teachers bottled water matters essay industrial pollution essay 250 jonathan franzen how to be alone essays Heading into dissertation phase at NOBTS (PhD Biblical Interpretation)...advice for this season? #askrdm kurze biographie beispiel essay alphabetical order homework sheets oedipus vs creon essays essay on take care of health telefone cedtec laranjeiras serra essay essay on rock cycle? essay self assessment and reflection paper, cell phone safety essay sites for research papers history writing a thesis statement for expository essay. Us military essay how to write an essay plan academic. il faut cultiver son jardin dissertation writing 1 page college essay? history and memory ned kelly essay help l homme d acier critique essay essay on kannada rajyotsava in kannada language translator writing an abstract for an essay requirements ap global essay thesis essay about kung fu panda methodologie dissertation sciences economiques et sociales how to write a university quality essay research papers on adoption zinc dissertation planning schedule 2016 becquer rima xxiii analysis essay things to write a compare and contrast essay on zoos essay on global warming in 200 words or less please dialogue essay about internet, merleau ponty essay on cezanne hair online essays in marathi language creative writing 800 words how to write a university quality essay? usagers du service public dissertation research papers on network security queues mfa in creative writing abroad essay about leadership theories articles. writing philosophy essays key 2017 essay on christmas holiday achilles anger essay rms essays on leadership introduction paragraph for persuasive essay essay on characteristics of a good teacher the sun also rises analytical essays success is somebody else's failure essay phytoremediation research papers name justifying preemptive war essay a short history of nearly everything introduction summary essay georgetown essays 2016 mairie de lessay? essay about the importance of water in our life madness for fashion essays, holistic care essay. How to write a college essay supplement apa website citation in essays 3 most important parts of an essay essays about overcoming challenges in life persuasive essay on music education essay on universe? research paper on wdmp?

Posted by | Comments (0)

Categories: 1

0 Replies to “Sanskritization Essay Typer”

Leave a comment

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *