The Catholic Reformation Essay
1393 Words6 Pages
By the late 1500s, Christian denominations had been popping up all over Europe. This was in response to the reports of indulgences (selling of freedom from purgatory), clerical immorality, abuse of money, along with many other bad actions that were rampant among the Church. It was these problems that Luther and others rebelled and created their own religions. With the rising of these Reformation movements, the Church needed to make some reforms itself. These reforms took the form of educating the clergy, opening monasteries, the Inquisition, and the organizing of councils. In fact, even though Protestant attacks brought these reforms, many of these reforms were needed anyway. The problems in the Church were so bad that the Church would not…show more content…
The order was different in that the priests did not wear a habit, they did not pray the Office (daily prayers said by priests and monks), there was no hierarchical structure, and they did the work that the pope ordered them to do (Cunningham 205). The order believed that the problems of the Church were more of a people’s problem than a doctrine problem (Lindberg 335). They thought that if a believer masters his will and follows God freely, then there would be no need for reform (Lindberg 335). According to the Jesuits, “Catholics had fallen away from pure faith by not participating in pure obedience to the hierarchical Church,” (Holder 197). The priests went all over the world, spreading the word of God in places like India, South America, and China (Holder 198). The order also established many colleges as well to teach their ways (Holder 199). They practised an untraditional type of prayer called “interior prayer” (Holder 197). It was a “form of silent prayer that sought out God in the inner recesses of the believer’s soul” (Holder 197). Loyola wrote a book called the Spiritual Exercises which “was to be used as a handbook designed to help somebody guide another through a program of reflections and meditations that would lead to a deeper sense of purpose in life and to a deeper commitment to the ideal of Jesus” (qtd. in Holder 199). The idea of this order is similar to another order in Spain, who saw that self-reform, and not conflict, was the
The Protestant Reformation, Religious Unity, and Calvinism Essay examples
2184 Words9 Pages
The Protestant Reformation of the Catholic Church devastated the religious unity of Christian Europe, resulting in a great deal of antagonism, which in turn led to the persecutions, denial of civil rights, expulsion, and ultimately the torture and death of many men, women and children. The ongoing conflict was not consigned to one distinct European nation, but was experienced in every European nation that the Catholic Church ruled and reigned. There was no worldview in Europe at that time that allowed for the religious differences of men to coexist peaceably.
As quoted by McGrath in his book, French Protestantism to the Present Day. From Britain in the west to Hungary and Poland in the east, thousands of towns and…show more content…
In October of 1534, the Affair of the Placard occurred, what made this event of great importance, was that it was a planned, written Protestant attack on the Catholic doctrine of Mass. These posters, which condemned the practice of Mass, also appeared just about simultaneously in several major cities of France overnight to include Paris, where Calvin lived. Francis I, retaliated harshly and swiftly possibly, because of the recent treaty that he had signed with Spain to end the Thirty Year War. Francis, possible to ensure his loyalty toward the Pope and the treaty arrested and executed the Protestants whom were responsible. Calvin like many other fearing for their safety left France, Calvin choosing to escape to Switzerland.
When Calvin arrived in Geneva, William Farel saw in Calvin the leader that Geneva needed “and he urged the young scholar to go no farther but to stay in the city and help establish the work there” (Shelley, 2008, 256) . Calvin's patronage from Geneva helped with the growth and development of the French Protestant movement in the 1550s. Calvin trained French Protestant pastors at the Geneva Academy, and helped to smuggle them back into France to establish and develop local congregations. It was also during this time he wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion, in 1536, that put into words the